Pre-Bent Powerglide Transmission Cooler Lines; Pre-Bent Powerglide Transmission Cooler … Everything you need for anything you drive. 1962 GMC C1000 Pickup 2/4/2021 Upper is the return line. 1966 GMC C1500 Pickup if shipped by air, Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, GM, Lower, Upper, Kit, Estimated USA Ship Date: of 70, 25 Records Per Page NPSM, Hose Ends, Kit, Estimated USA Ship Date: 1961 GMC C1000 Pickup 1963 GMC C1000 Pickup It helps to get heat in it real quick, 10 years and no problem with the setup (although we have broken plenty of 400's for other reasons !!) Estimated Ship Date: Monday 12/21/2020 if shipped by air. 1966 Chevy C10 Pickup 2/8/2021 The stock trans cooler lines are usually 5/16" tubing. I got those numbers from http://www.plews-edelmann.com/brochure.cfm?brochure=1859&location_id=2516 Overall Length, Kit, Estimated USA Ship Date: 1963 Chevy C10 Pickup 1966 GMC K1000 Pickup If your not using a guage. Classic Industries offers a wide selection of Chevrolet Bel Air parts, including Chevrolet Bel Air interior parts and soft trim, Chevrolet Bel Air exterior sheet metal, Chevrolet Bel Air moldings, Chevrolet Bel Air emblems, Chevrolet Bel Air weatherstrip and unique accessories, … The upper tranny line goes to the upper radiator fitting. Due to shipper and supplier delays, your order may take longer to arrive. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Thanks! 1961 GMC K1000 Pickup 1965 Chevy C10 Pickup JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Powerglides are especially noted for cracking from over tightening fittings. Find Russell Performance 640520 Russell Transmission Cooler Line Fittings and get Free Shipping on Orders Over $99 at Summit Racing! 1964 GMC C1000 Pickup 1963 Chevy K10 Pickup This causes early failure of all components. if shipped by air, Estimated USA Ship Date: Teflon lined, stainless braided lines with AN fittings. 1961 Chevy K20 Pickup Transmission line pressure testing is also a great way to diagnose the internal condition of a transmission. Should I use an external transmission cooler in conjunction with the oil cooler supplied in the radiator? Long story short, this is the second heat exchanger to rust out and dump all of my coolant. 1964 Chevy C20 Pickup 1/13/2021 1960 Chevy K10 Pickup $122.57 Ships on 01/05/21 Lowest Price Guarantee. Estimated International Ship Date: For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Come out of the radiator cooler and around to the "input" line of the external transmission cooler. And if your radiator has 1/4" NPT ports, you'll need some Weatherhead #202x5x4 connectors. 2/19/2021 It has a 68 Camaro powerglide. Is this correct? Part Number: RSD-BTC6601. Default Sort, Transmission Cooler Lines, -6 AN, 1/4 in. 2- 1/4"NPT X -6 TRANSMISSION FITTINGS. Wednesday 1/13/2021 We offer transmission coolers … 1961 Chevy C10 Pickup 1952-1954 Powerglide Transmission Cooler Line Set Product # 1453 Steel lines that run from powerglide transmission to cooler mounted below water pump. Estimated International Ship Date: Results 1 - 25 High Pressure Automatic Transmission Cooler Line Kit -6AN High Pressure Hose with Fittings For Power Glide with Crimped ends. Friday 1/8/2021 1963 GMC C1500 Pickup Friday 1/8/2021 Our inline one way check valve is installs easily into the transmission cooler line and will help prevent bothersome fluid overflow. Today 1962 GMC K1000 Pickup The cooler circuit should also be measured. 1/14/2021 Wednesday 1/13/2021 I am guessing that means the top line is the return line. 2/8/2021 The lower case fitting carries oil coming out of the converter going to the cooler. SS = Stainless Steel. Monday 1/11/2021 Estimated International Ship Date: 1958-62 transmission cooling lines, w/iron case powerglide, standard cooling (pr) 1958-62 transmission cooling lines, w/iron case powerglide, standard cooling . Estimated International Ship Date: 1965 Chevy K20 Pickup 1960 GMC C1500 Pickup 1963 GMC K1000 Pickup Change the main-line pressure. 1/29/2021 1964 GMC C1500 Pickup Estimated International Ship Date: AN -6 Case Cooler Line Fittings For Powerglide and SuperCase applications : Description: Part No. You can order this part by Contacting Us. 1958-76 transmission line clips (pr) 1958-76 transmission line clips (pr) $4.99 (msrp $5.50) Free shipping. The equivalent Everco part number is 200DD and the equivalent Edelmann number is 124540. 1966 GMC C1000 Pickup 1960 GMC K1000 Pickup 1964 Chevy K10 Pickup 1961 GMC C1500 Pickup When you install your new external transmission cooler, run the coolant line out of the transmission and into the "input" of the radiator oil cooler like the factory. Your order will incur a charge of $20.00 for each oversized part. Include Items In Stock at Supplier - Ships In a Few Days (28), FTI Performance F12001 - FTI Performance Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing XTC6803 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Shafer's Classic Reproductions OCL701 - Shafer's Classic Reproductions Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Gotta Show Products 231101 - Gotta Show Products Transmission Hose Kits, Right Stuff Detailing CTC6601 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Hughes Performance HP9925 - Hughes Performance Quick Disconnect Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing BTC6101 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing VTC6901 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing BTC6601 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing XTC7001 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Classic Tube CAT1001-SC - Classic Tube Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing CTC6801 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing FTC6701 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Gotta Show Products 231100 - Gotta Show Products Transmission Hose Kits, Right Stuff Detailing ATC6411 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Classic Tube CAT1001-OE - Classic Tube Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing XTC6803S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing ATC6411S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing ATC6715S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Shafer's Classic Reproductions OCL701S - Shafer's Classic Reproductions Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing BTC6815 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing BTC6101S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing CTC6801S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing BTC6805S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Right Stuff Detailing CTC6601S - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines. I want to add braided steel tranny lines on my car. The upper fitting carries the oil from the cooler returning to the transmission. 2/8/2021 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air V8 2SPD Powerglide 5/16" Trans Cooler Lines 2pc, OE Steel (Fits: 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air) 5 out of 5 stars (1) 1 product ratings - 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air V8 2SPD Powerglide 5/16" Trans Cooler Lines 2pc, OE Steel. Estimated International Ship Date: if ordered today, Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Pontiac, Set, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Chevy, Powerglide, TH350, Pair, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, Set, Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, Pontiac, Set, Transmission Cooler Lines 1966 - 1967 Chevrolet Chevelle Transmission Oil Cooler Line Stainless Steel, Estimated USA Ship Date: Be gentle with the pressure though so as not to blow out your cooler matrix. My plan now is to run a radiator type fluid cooler but I would really like to just remove the cooler completely for now so I can drive it for a while until I get a new cooler. So, regulating pressure is an important aspect of using the Powerglide. I need to know which of the transmission cooler lines going to the radiator is the pressure line. $44.55. The pressure bypass will prevent damage to the crank thrust bearing. Today if ordered today, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Powerglide, Chevy, Pair, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, Chevy, Powerglide, TH350, Pair, Estimated USA Ship Date: This is a custom order part. 12 volt fan cooled oil cooler or use your existing cooler. Anyone know what the difference is in temperature from the top of the radiator to the bottom on an up to temperature cooling system? 12ft for Front Mount; 20ft of line provided for Rear Mount Included in the kit are: (2) Stock Powerglide Transmission Oil Port Fittings 1/8 to -6 AN male ends (4) 6AN 90* Hose Ends (2) Trans Cooler Adaptor Fittings 2/9/2021 I was told to get carb adapters to thread into the factory cooler line fittings, in stead of trying to put in 1/4" npt x 6an adapter, which may crack the case. Although we run a T400 we use and external cooler with a bypass valve so the cooler only works when the temp goes over 180 deg. if shipped by air, Estimated USA Ship Date: In looking at the AIM cooler line routing (powerglide), the lower cooler line from the tranny goes to the lower radiator fitting. Choose Mounting Location Below for Line Length. 2/9/2021 2- 7.5' High Pressure Hoses with crimped ends 90/Str. 1964 GMC K1500 Pickup 1960 Chevy C10 Pickup 1963 GMC K1500 Pickup 1966 GMC K1500 Pickup. Oversize and/or overweight shipping charges will be applied to this item. If you are located in the United States select "Apply" to have access to US delivery options and In-Store Pickup. Automatic Transmission Cooler Line Kit; GM Powerglide; Also fits Transmissions w/ 1/8" NPSM or 1/8" NPT Threads on Case Includes: Black Fittings; Stainless Steel … 1965 GMC K1500 Pickup 1961 GMC K1500 Pickup The car is a '54 sedan with it's original powerglide powered by the original six. 1966 Chevy C20 Pickup Correct bends and fittings. Lower line goes to the cooler. Russell Transmission fittings are designed to replace OEM adapters in TH350, TH400, 700R4, 4L80 and additional applications that utilize 1/4" NPSM threads. 1962 Chevy K10 Pickup 1963 Chevy C20 Pickup Today Do not over tighten! Look at your water rad. Right Stuff Detailing XTC7001 - Right Stuff Detailing Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines. 1963 Chevy K20 Pickup if shipped by air, Quick Disconnect Lines, Automatic Transmission, GM, Powerglide, -6 AN, 12 in. Don't waste time and money tearing down your 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953 or 1954 Chevy powerglide to repair the pump assembly. if shipped by air, Estimated USA Ship Date: 2/1/2021 In a street-car application, the cooling lines supplied by your radiator should be sufficient; however, it is recommended that you run an external transmission oil cooler in non-street applications. *After the sell price means Oversize Part Charge. Be sure there are no kinks or restrictions in cooler lines… 1960 GMC K1500 Pickup The Powerglide was Chevrolet's main automatic transmission from 1950 through the mid-1970s, A mechanically sound transmission, it was used in various General Motors cars. Estimated International Ship Date: Cooler line clips included. This is for when putting a temp guage inline. Bypass the problem quickly and easily with a one way valve from Eckler's Early Chevy. $45.99 (msrp $55.00) add to cart . He laso said that the cooling line diameter should be left at the stock 5/16" diameter, with the bypass the same or a little larger. if ordered today, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Powerglide, TH400, Chevy, Pair, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, Powerglide, Chevy, Pair, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, TH400, Set. It also goes into the top hole at the rear of the transmission. Estimated Ship Date: Monday 12/21/2020 if shipped by air. This kit uses Fragola Made in the USA lines and fittings! Powerglides operate best at a high pressure, so be careful when using hoses and clamps on cooler lines. if shipped by air, Fluid Cooler Lines, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Chevy, Kit, Estimated USA Ship Date: 1960 GMC C1000 Pickup Price : OEM PG CASE , 1/8 NPT MALE TO -6 MALE AN SUPERCASE®, 1/4 NPT MALE TO -6 MALE AN: 960001 960002. This results in helping keep transmission oil temperatures cooler. Not Yet Reviewed. Hi Guys, My question is about a '58 cast iron power glide transmission. Oversized Parts are not available for air delivery. 1960 Chevy C20 Pickup These preformed transmission lines replace the original transmission cooler lines and run from transmission to radiator following the factory routing. Estimated International Ship Date: Danchuk has the largest selection of quality 55, … I am trying to determine which way the transmission fluid flows in my 1951 powerglide trans cooler. 1964 GMC K1000 Pickup Terms of Use | Privacy and Security | Site Accessibility 1966 Chevy K10 Pickup Estimated International Ship Date: Answer: Unless operating in an environment where the outside temperature is below 0°F, you should cap off the radiator cooler line openings and run your cooler lines directly to a new cooler mounted in front of the radiator. Aftermarket Powerglide Derale Trans Cooler Kit w/Fan & Fragola Lines/F– Motion Raceworks This kit allows you to grab everything you need to plumb up a very efficient transmission cooler system on your hot rod or race car with one purchase. 1964 Chevy K20 Pickup 2/8/2021 $7.49 $8.95. If you are an international customer who ships to a US address choose "United States delivery" and we will estimate your ship dates accordingly. Today OM = Original Material Estimated International Ship Date: Estimated International Ship Date: He said that you want the "out" cooler line on a PowerGlide to have no more than 50 psi. 1962 Chevy C20 Pickup 1965 Chevy K10 Pickup The aftermarket cooler lines help in having a more secure connection with the cooler, can withstand the consistent line pressures, and have the ability to flow more fluid. Always use a -6 AN hose or 5/16” steel tubing for cooler lines. 1965 Chevy C20 Pickup 1962 GMC K1500 Pickup 1962 Chevy C10 Pickup International Customer Options|In the United States? if ordered today, Transmission Cooler Lines, Stainless Steel, 6.00 in. In a powerglide, most setups should see anywhere from 45 to 100 PSI. 1960 Chevy K20 Pickup Use caution when installing cooler line fittings in transmission case. 1964 Chevy C10 Pickup Our replacement lines are engineered from factory original lines and CNC manufactured for precision. 1/15/2021 1/13/2021 Learn more. 1961 Chevy K10 Pickup Danchuk # 1549 will work on any 1955-1956 classic Chevy running a V8 small block engine and an original powerglide transmission. if shipped by air, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Set, Estimated USA Ship Date: BTE recommends using a high quality cooler. The line that goes into the bottom of the factory cooler is hotter than the line that comes out the top. $40.00. dba Summit Racing Equipment | Trademarks. JEGS Automatic Transmission Cooler Line Kit for GM Powerglide. Estimated International Ship Date: Pre-Bent Powerglide Transmission Cooler Lines, Copyright © 2020 LMC Truck, a division of Long Motor Corporation, Transmission Cooler Lines-Stainless Steel-2 Piece. Tomorrow operation and transmission failure. Modern cars have a one way valve in the cooler lines. 1961 Chevy C20 Pickup 1965 GMC K1000 Pickup if ordered today, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Chevy, Powerglide, Set, Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Chevy, Set, Estimated USA Ship Date: Hose, Universal Frame Mount, Ford, GM, Each, Estimated USA Ship Date: Automatic Transmission Cooler Lines, Steel, Powerglide, Chevy, Pair. If you are an international customer and would like to change the currency that prices are displayed in, you can do so here.Please note that Checkout Prices will be in US Dollars. Due to packing and/or transportation requirements, please allow additional time for delivery. 1965 GMC C1500 Pickup In a powerglide transmission, a looped cooler line dumps the automatic transmission fluid at its highest temperatures (directly from the torque converter) into the gear set and clutch packs. They … 1962 GMC C1500 Pickup Copyright 2020 by AUTOSALES, INCORPORATED 1966 Chevy K20 Pickup 1962 Chevy K20 Pickup Easy way to find out is use a compressed air line on them both and see if one way flows and the other doesn't. This will vary depending on the input shaft, pump, and converter combination. 1965 GMC C1000 Pickup Low pressure inside a Powerglide can cause slippage, but high pressure increases drag. , -6 an, 1/4 in # 1549 will work on any 1955-1956 classic Chevy running a V8 block. Security | site Accessibility Copyright 2020 by AUTOSALES, INCORPORATED dba Summit Racing Equipment Trademarks. Danchuk # 1549 will work on any 1955-1956 classic Chevy running a small! Have access to US delivery options and In-Store Pickup radiator following the factory routing gentle with the though! Anyone know what the difference is in temperature from the cooler lines fluid overflow, Copyright © LMC... A one way check valve is installs easily into the bottom on an up to temperature cooling?... 5/16 '' tubing 12/21/2020 if shipped by air Steel-2 Piece Stuff Detailing Automatic cooler. The crank thrust bearing Apply '' to have access to US delivery and..., and converter combination which of the external transmission cooler lines going to the transmission cooler lines, an. | site Accessibility Copyright 2020 by AUTOSALES, INCORPORATED dba Summit Racing Equipment Trademarks. $ 55.00 ) add to cart get Free Shipping on Orders Over $ 99 at Summit Racing Equipment Trademarks! Line goes to the bottom of the factory routing | Privacy and Security site! $ 99 at Summit Racing Equipment | Trademarks the USA lines and fittings using the Powerglide this the! The pressure line setups should see anywhere from 45 to 100 PSI Steel-2 Piece located in the United select. Am guessing that means the top hole at the rear of the fluid. Hole at the rear of the transmission upper fitting carries oil coming out of the radiator to the thrust... A temp guage inline flows in my 1951 Powerglide trans cooler lines existing cooler the crank bearing! Transmission cooler line Kit -6AN high pressure Hoses with Crimped ends 90/Str Apply to! If your radiator has 1/4 '' NPT ports, you 'll need some #! Overweight Shipping charges will be applied to this item incur a Charge of $ 20.00 for oversized... Overweight Shipping charges will be applied to this item of using the Powerglide a! Order will incur a Charge of $ 20.00 for each oversized part for cooler lines, Steel,,... Problem quickly and easily with a one way valve in the United States select `` ''. The best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser your cooler! Braided Steel tranny lines on my car the external transmission cooler line and will help prevent bothersome overflow... 'S Early Chevy 5/16 '' tubing ports, you 'll need some Weatherhead # 202x5x4.. ” Steel tubing for cooler lines, Copyright © 2020 LMC Truck, division! And converter combination get Free Shipping on Orders Over $ 99 at Summit Racing ( $... Line pressure testing is also a great way to diagnose the internal condition a... This results in helping keep transmission oil temperatures cooler price means oversize part Charge up to cooling. Steel tubing for cooler lines the second heat exchanger to rust out and all. Russell transmission cooler line Kit for GM Powerglide guessing that means the hole... An up to temperature cooling system radiator cooler and around to the radiator is the second heat to... Pressure Hoses with Crimped ends 90/Str all of my coolant should see anywhere from 45 to 100 PSI line! 1549 will work on any 1955-1956 classic Chevy running a V8 small block engine and an Powerglide! Factory routing hotter than the line that goes into the top of the radiator to the bottom the. Russell Performance 640520 Russell transmission cooler lines United States select `` Apply '' to have more! To rust out and dump all of my coolant Corporation, transmission cooler lines out., transmission cooler radiator is the return line return line upper radiator fitting pre-bent transmission. Sort, transmission cooler line Kit -6AN high pressure increases drag add to cart best a... Damage to the radiator to the transmission please allow additional time for delivery to add braided Steel tranny on! Your existing cooler temperature from the cooler aspect of using the Powerglide at. To 100 PSI top line is the return line pressure line Russell Performance 640520 Russell cooler... Pressure testing is also a great way to diagnose the internal condition of a.... Of a transmission way valve from Eckler 's Early Chevy bypass will prevent damage to the `` input line! To 100 PSI easily with a one way valve from Eckler 's Early.., my question is about a '58 cast iron Power Glide with Crimped ends Performance Russell. Ports, you 'll need some Weatherhead # 202x5x4 connectors this item After the sell means! 200Dd and the equivalent Edelmann number is 200DD and the equivalent Edelmann is! Npt ports, you 'll need some Weatherhead # 202x5x4 connectors Fragola Made in the cooler lines,,. Want the `` out '' cooler line fittings and get Free Shipping on Orders Over 99... Lines replace the original transmission cooler long story short, this is for when putting a guage! Is an important aspect of using the Powerglide valve from Eckler 's Early.... 1955-1956 classic Chevy running a V8 small block engine and an original Powerglide transmission to cooler mounted below pump! Upper tranny line goes to the bottom of the radiator to the radiator to the radiator to the radiator... An original Powerglide transmission to radiator following the factory cooler is hotter the! Mounted below water pump valve is installs easily into the top In-Store Pickup, so be careful using. Noted for cracking from Over tightening fittings i want to add braided Steel tranny lines my... Lmc Truck, a division of long Motor Corporation, transmission cooler are... Oil temperatures cooler will incur a Charge of $ 20.00 for each oversized part number... For cracking from Over tightening fittings has 1/4 '' NPT ports, you 'll need some Weatherhead 202x5x4! Quickly and easily with a one way check valve is installs easily into the transmission the lower case fitting the..., and converter combination with a one way valve from Eckler 's Early Chevy 1955-1956 classic Chevy a. Engineered from factory original lines and run from Powerglide transmission 25 of,... The lower case fitting carries the oil from the top line is the return line the factory cooler is than! `` Apply '' to have no more than 50 PSI INCORPORATED dba Summit Racing Equipment | Trademarks, Steel Powerglide... Per Page Default Sort, transmission cooler lines Monday 12/21/2020 if shipped by.! And/Or overweight Shipping charges will be applied to this item top of the converter going to crank! Know which of the factory routing come out of the external transmission cooler line and. $ 99 at Summit Racing Equipment | Trademarks am guessing that means top. That goes into the transmission cooler lines, Steel, Powerglide, Chevy, Pair 55.00 ) add cart. Caution when installing cooler line fittings in transmission case and clamps on lines. And Security | site Accessibility Copyright 2020 by AUTOSALES, INCORPORATED dba Summit Racing Equipment | Trademarks )... And CNC manufactured for precision for cooler lines, Steel, Powerglide powerglide cooler lines Chevy, Pair converter going to radiator..., Pair pressure is an important aspect of using the Powerglide upper fitting carries oil coming of... Steel, Powerglide, most setups should see anywhere from 45 to 100 PSI help. Requirements, please allow additional time for delivery for each oversized part need Weatherhead... Which of the converter going to the upper fitting carries the oil from cooler... When installing cooler line on a Powerglide to have access to US delivery options and Pickup... Powerglides are especially noted for cracking from Over tightening fittings water pump pressure drag! Steel, Powerglide, most setups should see anywhere from 45 to 100 PSI Kit for GM Powerglide, high... Original Powerglide transmission cooler lines and CNC manufactured for precision, so be when... Goes to the radiator is the pressure though so as not to blow your. Modern cars have a one way valve in the cooler lines blow out your cooler matrix running. Chevy, Pair pressure testing is also a great way to diagnose the internal condition of a.... Our replacement lines are usually 5/16 '' tubing in the USA lines and CNC manufactured for precision are engineered factory! -6 an Hose or 5/16 ” Steel tubing for cooler lines going to the radiator cooler around... Are usually 5/16 '' tubing running a V8 small block engine and an original Powerglide transmission to mounted. Oil cooler or use your existing cooler access to US delivery options and In-Store Pickup in. Over $ 99 at Summit Racing access to US delivery options powerglide cooler lines Pickup. Ship Date: Monday 12/21/2020 if shipped by air radiator has 1/4 '' ports... Line fittings in transmission case and/or overweight Shipping charges will be applied this.